Title: Metagenomic profiles of the yak and cattle manure resistomes in different feeding patterns before and after composting
Authors: Qingshan Fan, Jing Zhang, Hairen Shi, Guangyun Zhang, Haozhe Zheng, Shenghua Chang, Fujiang Hou*
Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Impact Factor: IF2022 = 4.4
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to public health, with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) being one of the emerging contaminants; furthermore, animal manure is an important reservoir of biocide resistance genes (BRGs) and metal resistance genes (MRGs). However, few studies have reported differences in the abundance and diversity of BRGs and MRGs between different types of animal manure and the changes in BRGs and MRGs before and after composting. This study employed a metagenomics-based approach to investigate ARGs, BRGs, MRGs, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of yak and cattle manure before and after composting under grazing and intensive feeding patterns. The total abundances of ARGs, clinical ARGs, BRGs, MRGs, and MGEs were lower in the manure of grazing livestock than in the manure of the intensively fed group. After composting, the total abundances of ARGs, clinical ARGs, and MGEs in intensively fed livestock manure decreased, whereas those of ARGs, clinical ARGs, MRGs, and MGEs increased in grazing livestock manure. The synergy between MGEs mediated horizontal gene transfer and vertical gene transmission via host bacteria proliferation, which was the main driver that altered the abundance and diversity of ARGs, BRGs, and MRGs in livestock manure and compost. Additionally, tetQ, IS91, mdtF, and fabK were potential indicators for estimating the total abundance of clinical ARGs, BRGs, MRGs, and MGEs in livestock manure and compost. These findings suggest that grazing livestock manure can be directly discharged into the fields, whereas intensively fed livestock manure should be composted before returning to the field.
IMPORTANCE The recent increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), biocide resistance genes (BRGs), and metal resistance genes (MRGs) in livestock manure poses risks to human health. Composting is known to be a promising technology for reducing the abundance of resistance genes. This study investigated the differences and changes in the abundances of ARGs, BRGs, and MRGs between yak and cattle manure under grazing and intensive feeding patterns before and after composting. The results indicate that the feeding pattern significantly affected the abundances of resistance genes in livestock manure. Manure in intensive farming should be composted before being discharged into the field, while grazing livestock manure is not suitable for composting due to an increased number of resistance genes.